Regulatory role of PGC-1α/PPAR signaling in skeletal muscle metabolic recruitment during cold acclimation

A. Stancic, B. Buzadzic, A. Korac, V. Otasevic, A. Jankovic, M. Vucetic, M. Markelic, K. Velickovic, I. Golic and B. Korac
Journal of Experimental Biology, 216 (2013), 4233-4241.

Abstract. This study examined the molecular basis of energy-related regulatory mechanisms underlying metabolic recruitment of skeletal muscle during cold acclimation and possible involvement of the l-arginine/nitric oxide-producing pathway. Rats exposed to cold (4±1°C) for periods of 1, 3, 7, 12, 21 and 45 days were divided into three groups: untreated, l-arginine treated and Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) treated. Compared with controls (22±1°C), there was an initial increase in the protein level of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase α (day 1), followed by an increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs): PPARα and PPARγ from day 1 and PPARδ from day 7 of cold acclimation. Activation of the PGC-1α/PPAR transcription program was accompanied by increased protein expression of the key metabolic enzymes in β-oxidation, the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, with the exceptions in complex I (no changes) and ATP synthase (decreased at day 1). Cold did not affect hexokinase and GAPDH protein levels, but increased lactate dehydrogenase activity compared with controls (1–45 days). l-arginine sustained, accelerated and/or intensified cold-induced molecular remodeling throughout cold acclimation. l-NAME exerted phase-dependent effects: similar to l-arginine in early cold acclimation and opposite after prolonged cold exposure (from day 21). It seems that upregulation of the PGC-1α/PPAR transcription program early during cold acclimation triggers the molecular recruitment of skeletal muscle underlying the shift to more oxidative metabolism during prolonged cold acclimation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide has a role in maintaining the skeletal muscle oxidative phenotype in late cold acclimation but question its role early in cold acclimation.

Keywords: cold acclimation, skeletal muscle, transcription control, metabolism

IF: 3.002
IF5: 3.335
MNTR classification: M21


  title = {Regulatory role of PGC-1$\alpha$/PPAR signaling in skeletal muscle metabolic recruitment during cold acclimation},
  author = {Stancic, Ana and Buzadzic, Biljana and Korac, Aleksandra and Otasevic, Vesna and Jankovic, Aleksandra and Vucetic, Milica and Markelic, Milica and Velickovic, Ksenija and Golic, Igor and Korac, Bato},
  journal = {Journal of Experimental Biology},
  volume = {216},
  number = {22},
  pages = {4233--4241},
  year = {2013}